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Do you know how the piston works and its components?

The engine is like the “heart” of the car, and the piston can be understood as the “hub” of the engine. In addition to being in a harsh working environment, it is also the busiest one in the engine, constantly going from bottom dead center to top. Dead point, reciprocating motion from top dead center to bottom dead center, suction, compression, workmanship, exhaust… The interior of the piston is hollowed out, more like a hat, and the round holes at both ends connect the piston The pin, the piston pin is connected to the small end of the connecting rod, and the large end of the connecting rod is connected to the crankshaft, which converts the reciprocating motion of the piston into the circular motion of the crankshaft.

The piston is the reciprocating part in the cylinder block of the automobile engine. The basic structure of the piston can be divided into top, head and skirt. The top of the piston is the main part of the combustion chamber, and its shape is related to the type of combustion chamber selected. Gasoline engines mostly use flat-top pistons, which have the advantage of small heat-absorbing area. There are often various pits on the top of the diesel engine piston, and its specific shape, location and size must be adapted to the requirements of the diesel engine’s mixture formation and combustion.

The entire piston can be mainly divided into three parts: piston top, piston head and piston skirt.

The main function of the piston is to withstand the combustion pressure in the cylinder and transmit this force to the crankshaft through the piston pin and connecting rod. In addition, the piston also forms the combustion chamber together with the cylinder head and the cylinder wall.

The piston top is an integral part of the combustion chamber, so it is often made into different shapes. The gasoline engine piston top mostly adopts a flat top or a concave top, so as to make the combustion chamber compact, the heat dissipation area is small, and the manufacturing process is simple. Raised top pistons are commonly used in two-stroke gasoline engines. Piston tops of diesel engines are often made of various pits.

The piston head is the part above the piston pin seat. The piston head is equipped with a piston ring to prevent high temperature and high pressure gas from entering the crankcase and preventing oil from entering the combustion chamber; most of the heat absorbed by the piston top also passes through the piston head. The part is transmitted to the cylinder, which is then transmitted away through the cooling medium.

All parts below the piston ring groove are called piston skirts. Its function is to guide the piston to reciprocate in the cylinder and to withstand side pressure. When the engine is working, due to the action of the gas pressure in the cylinder, the piston will be bent and deformed. After the piston is heated, the amount of expansion of the piston pin is larger than that of other places due to the large amount of metal at the piston pin.

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