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Understand the Structure and Principle of Turbocharger in Seconds

Now most car companies produce turbocharged models, and consumers are increasingly accepting turbochargers, so what exactly is a turbocharger? How does a turbocharger work?


1. Overview

A turbocharger is actually an air compressor that increases the amount of intake air by compressing it.

2. Principle

The turbocharger uses the inertial impulse of the exhaust gas discharged from the engine to push the turbine in the turbine chamber, and the turbine drives the coaxial impeller. The impeller presses the air sent from the air filter pipeline to pressurize it into the cylinder.

When the engine speed increases, the exhaust gas discharge speed and the turbine speed also increase synchronously, the impeller compresses more air into the cylinder, and the pressure and density of the air increase to burn more fuel, correspondingly increase the amount of fuel and adjust the speed of the engine, It can increase the output power of the engine.

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3. Structure

A turbocharger includes a turbine housing, a compressor housing, an intermediate housing, a turbine, a pump impeller, a floating bearing, an exhaust bypass valve, and an actuator. The turbine and the pump wheel are assembled on the same shaft, and are respectively installed in the turbine casing and the compression casing through two floating bearings. There are oil passages in the intermediate body to lubricate and cool the bearings, as well as sealing devices to prevent oil from leaking into the compressor or turbine.

Parts such as turbine exhaust impeller, compressor impeller and sealing sleeve are installed on the supercharger shaft to form the turbocharger rotor. The exhaust pressure from the exhaust manifold causes the turbine to rotate at a high speed, and the pump wheel on the same axis rotates to press the intake air into the cylinder.

Because the rotor is directly impacted by the exhaust gas, it becomes very hot, so the turbocharger often works at high speed and high temperature. High-speed rotation, so in order to ensure the normal operation of the supercharger must have reliable lubrication and cooling, generally there will be oil inlet and return holes and water inlet and return holes on the supercharger, so as to connect with the oil and coolant in the engine, so as to achieve Cool and lubricate the supercharger to allow the supercharger to work in a relatively stable environment.

4. Advantages of Turbochargers

1. Increase the Engine Power.

When the engine displacement is unchanged, the density of the intake air can be increased to allow the engine to inject more fuel, thereby increasing the power of the engine. The power and torque of the engine after adding a supercharger should be increased by 20% to 30%. On the contrary, under the requirement of the same power output, the cylinder diameter of the engine can be reduced, and the volume and weight of the engine can be reduced.

2. Improve Engine Emissions.

Turbocharger engines reduce the discharge of harmful components such as particulate matter and nitrogen oxides in the engine exhaust by improving the combustion efficiency of the engine. It is an indispensable configuration for diesel engines to meet the emission standards above Euro II.

3. Provide the Function of Plateau Compensation.

In some high-altitude areas, the higher the altitude, the thinner the air, and the engine with a turbocharger can overcome the power drop of the engine caused by the thin air on the plateau.

4. Improve Fuel Economy and Reduce Fuel Consumption.

Due to the better combustion performance of the engine with a turbocharger, it can save 3%-5% of fuel.

5. Disadvantages of Turbochargers

1. The disadvantage of the turbocharger is the lag, that is, due to the inertia of the impeller, the response to the sudden change of the throttle is slow, which makes the engine delay to increase or decrease the output power. Feeling of incompetence.

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