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Water pump use and classification

Definition and Purpose

A pump is a machine that pumps energy liquids. It is a machine that converts the mechanical energy of the prime motive into the potential energy of the liquid. Driven by power machinery, it can pump liquids from low to high or far away for production.

The pump can pump water, oil, acid and alkali solution, liquid metal, pulp, mud, and so on. A pump used to pump is called a pump, also called a pump.

The water pump is used for agricultural irrigation and drainage, which improves the ability of agriculture to withstand natural disasters, can increase production, collect, and provide material conditions for agricultural mechanization and water conservancy.

Classification and Model

There are many types of pumps, which are divided into two types rotor pumps and rotors. The first class is to convert the mechanical energy of the power machine into the energy of lifting or pumping the fluid, such as blade pump, volume pump, or vortex pump; The latter class is to rely on the workflow body to convert the working energy into the energy of lifting or pumping the fluid, such as hammer pump, jet pump, internal combustion pump, airlift water pump and so on. But in the agricultural drainage, and drainage work, the most used is the blade pump.  Model representation method.

China’s large and medium-sized pump stations, the current use of water pumps are: IS type single-stage centrifugal pump, s (sh) type single stage double suction centrifugal pump, 1200lw type vertical volute centrifugal pump, 1700zl b type vertical axial flow pump several types. The vacuum pump is mainly Sz-1 and 2.

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Water pump use and classification

Single-pole single-suction centrifugal pump

Single-stage double suction centrifugal water pump

Vertical centrifugal pump

Vertical axial flow pump

Vacuum pump

Basic working principle of pump

Centrifugal pump

Working principle of centrifugal pump

There are many types of centrifugal pumps, but the working principle is the same, and the structure is much the same. Its main working parts are a rotating impeller and a fixed pump shell (figure 2-1). The impeller is the centrifugal pump directly to the liquid parts, it has a number of back bending blades, generally 4~8 pieces. When the centrifugal pump is working, the impeller is driven by the motor for high-speed rotation (1000~3000r/min), forcing the liquid between the blades to rotate accordingly. At the same time, due to the action of centrifugal force, the liquid moves radial from the center of the impeller to the outer edge. The liquid gains energy in the process of moving through the impeller and leaves the outer edge of the impeller at high speed and enters the cochlear pump shell. In the volute, due to the gradual expansion and deceleration of the flow channel, some kinetic energy is converted into static pressure energy to achieve a higher pressure, and finally, the pipeline is pressed along the tagging flow.

While the liquid is forced to flow from the impeller center to the outer edge, a vacuum is formed at the center of the impeller. The suction pipe of the pump is connected to the center of the impeller, and the other end is immersed in the conveying liquid. Under the pressure of liquid surface pressure (often atmospheric pressure) and the pressure in the pump (negative pressure), the liquid enters the pump through the suction pipe, as long as the impeller rotates continuously, the centrifugal pump is continuously inhaled and discharged. It can be seen that the centrifugal pump mainly depends on the centrifugal force generated by the high-speed rotating impeller to transport the liquid, so the name centrifugal pump.

If the centrifugal pump is not filled with liquid before starting, the air is in the pump, because the air density is small, and the centrifugal force is also small. The vacuum formed in the suction port is not enough to suction the liquid into the pump, although the centrifugal pump is started, but cannot transport the liquid, this phenomenon is called “air binding”. Therefore, the centrifugal pump must be filled with liquid into the shell before starting, and the bottom valve with a filter is installed at the bottom of the suction pipe. The bottom valve is reversed to prevent the liquid injected before starting from the pump. The filter prevents solid substances from entering the pump. A regulating valve is installed in the pressure outlet pipe near the pump outlet for use when adjusting the flow rate.

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