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What is Proper Use of Turbocharger and Common Failures and Causes of Turbochargers?

Turbocharger

Proper Use of Turbocharged Gasoline Engines

A turbocharger is often in high speed, high-temperature work, the temperature of the exhaust gas turbine end of the supercharger is more than 600 ℃, and the speed of the supercharger is also very high, up to more than 12000rpm. Therefore, to ensure the normal operation of the turbocharger, its correct use and maintenance are very important. The main points to note in the use of turbocharged gasoline engines are as follows:

(1) After the engine is started, it should not start immediately or blast the throttle. Generally, to S4d102e for 3 minutes, especially in winter, at least 5min need to warm up the car more, to make the oil temperature rise, fluidity can become good, in the supercharger rotor high-speed operation before the lubricant fully lubricated rotor bearings. At the same time, the engine just after the start, due to the low temperature of the oil, viscosity, such as slamming the throttle, will make the oil pressure too high and damage the supercharger oil seal.

(2) the engine can not be immediately shut down in the hot state (not separately installed booster cooling system of the engine). Turbocharger rotor bearings are lubricated and cooled by a certain pressure of oil. If the engine is suddenly turned off when it is hot, the oil pressure will drop rapidly, and the temperature of the turbocharger part will rise rapidly. At the same time, the supercharger rotor is still rotating at high speed under the action of inertia, which will cause the turbocharger rotor shaft and bearing “bite” and damage the bearing and shaft.

(3) after the engine is suddenly turned off, the heat on the exhaust manifold will be absorbed into the turbocharger housing, will stay inside the supercharger oil boiled into carbon, blocking the oil inlet, resulting in bearing oil shortage, accelerating the wear between the turbo shaft and bearing. Therefore, the engine should idle for 3~5min before turning off the engine, so that the temperature of the turbocharger and the rotor speed drops. Especially to prevent a few feet of throttle after a sudden stall. In addition, it is worth noting that turbocharged engines are not suitable for long idling, generally should be limited to 10min, otherwise, they will be damaged because of low oil pressure caused by poor lubrication of the rotor bearings.

(4) is strictly prohibited to use the “acceleration – flameout – idle coasting” method of operation, because the engine is suddenly turned off under full load and high temperature, the oil pump stopped working, and the oil can not take away the heat of the supercharger parts, will lead to damage to the supercharger.

(5) the use of the manufacturer’s brand of oil, and regular replacement of oil and filter; supercharger lubricating oil lines in the role of high-temperature internal oil coking easily, should be cleaned regularly.

(6) regularly clean or replace the air filter to prevent dust and other impurities into the high-speed rotation of the impeller of the compressor, resulting in unstable speed or bushings and seals to accelerate wear.

(7) Check the operation of the turbocharger. Before leaving the car, after the car, should check the connection part of the engine intake pipeline to prevent loosening, falling off the situation caused by turbocharger failure, or air short-circuiting directly into the cylinder. Check whether the turbocharger has oil leakage or air leakage; whether the supercharger shell has overheating, discoloration, cracks, and other phenomena, and if there is immediately identify the cause to exclude or replace. When the turbocharger appears strange sound, never continue to use, should find out the reasons, to exclude it.

Common Failures and Causes of Turbochargers

(1) Poor boosting effect
The main manifestation is in the decline in power, black smoke, blue smoke, poor fuel economy, oil consumption is significantly too much. The reasons for this are threefold:

① air filter is too dirty, can not provide high-density clean air to the engine;

② Impeller broken, causing insufficient air intake;

③ too much dust in the intake air, impeller and supercharger shell joints with sludge, affecting the speed of the supercharger impeller, resulting in insufficient air intake.

(2) low boost pressure
Low boost pressure refers to the normal situation compared to (boost pressure is less than 90% of the normal value)). Low boost pressure, so that the cylinder charge is reduced, not only the diesel engine power drop, and will make the cylinder combustion process deterioration, fuel consumption and exhaust temperature rise.

(3) one or both ends of the supercharger oil leakage
This is a relatively common fault, but also affect the service life of the supercharger is the main reason. Supercharger speed is very high, its floating bearing lubrication all rely on lubricating oil from the oil sump lubrication. With normal pressure into the bearing gap oil in the bearing working surface, oil pressure becomes zero, by its own gravity flow back to the oil sump, will not flow from both ends of the supercharger. In normal operation, the supercharger between the two impellers have a certain pressure, the oil is not from the low pressure bearing area to the two ends of the high pressure area, and the two impellers and floating bearings between the seal ring, under normal circumstances will not occur oil leakage, but in the following cases oil may leak from the two ends of the supercharger.

①Floating bearing wear

Long-term oil change or air filter failure caused by too much sand and dust into the supercharger, serious wear floating bearings, resulting in excessive bearing clearance, oil film instability, at high speeds, the supercharger will soon be unbalanced, the rotor shaft system vibration increased, destroying the seal at both ends, resulting in lubricant leakage.

②Air filter is too dirty or blocked

When the air filter is too dusty or for other reasons causing poor air supply, it will lead to too high negative pressure of the air inlet of the compressor, making the internal pressure at one end of the compressor higher than the external pressure, and the oil flows out from one end of the air inlet pipe under the action of pressure difference.

③ Poor oil return

When the oil flows out from the supercharger floating bearing, it flows back to the oil sump by its own gravity. However, when the oil return line is deformed or blocked, or when there is pressure in the oil return line due to high exhaust gas pressure in the crankcase, the oil flowing from the floating bearing will not flow back to the oil sump smoothly, but along the rotor shaft from both ends of the seal ring, resulting in oil leakage.

④ engine idling for a long time will also cause the supercharger oil leakage

When the engine idles for a long time, it will generate negative pressure in the supercharger volute and the impeller of the compressor, thus causing the oil from the floating bearing to leak outward under the action of pressure difference.

(4) supercharger wheezing
In addition to the supercharger and diesel engine improperly matched and caused by the compressor wheezing, well-matched supercharger in the operating conditions change, there may still be wheezing phenomenon, the root cause of the compressor air flow is reduced.

(5) exhaust temperature is too high
Exhaust gas temperature is too high, will affect the life of the turbine, the reason is the cylinder after burning serious, may be low boost pressure, insufficient air in the cylinder; or due to small injection advance angle, injector atomization is poor, the amount of oil supply is large, etc.

(6) supercharger speed is too high
Supercharger speed is too high because the energy at the turbine inlet is relatively too high or the load on the compressor is relatively too small.

(7) Supercharger abnormal vibration and noise
The supercharger produces abnormal vibration and noise, which directly affects the service life of the supercharger. The main reasons are:

① bending deformation of the booster rotor shaft or blade deformation.

② bearing damage so that the impeller outer arc and shell clearance disappears, friction occurs.

③ rotor carbon caused by dynamic balance accuracy decline.

④ with the supercharger connected to the pipeline local air leakage.

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