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Everything You Want To Know about Modern Pistons

The aluminum stone in your engine lives as hell as it burns. If at full throttle 6000rpm the pistons of a petrol engine exploded repeatedly, the metal would heat up to over 600 degrees Celsius, so about 10 tons of force every 0.02 seconds.

Lately, that cylindrical Hades has gotten hotter like never before, and only the pistons have the potential to worsen. As automakers pursue greater efficiency, piston producers are preparing for a future in which the most powerful naturally aspirated gasoline engines produce 175 horsepower per liter from 130 now. Tighter conditions are created as the turbocharger and output increase. Over the past 10 years, the operating temperature of the piston has risen by 120 degrees and the peak pressure of the cylinder has risen from 1500psi to 2200.


Pistons tell a story about the existence of engines. The crown can show the air holes, the number of valves, and whether fuel is injected directly into the cylinder. However, piston design and technology can also speak to a wide range of trends and topics facing the automotive industry. To create the motto: as the car goes, so does the engine. As the engine advances, so does the piston. In the quest to improve fuel consumption and cut emissions, automakers are looking for a lighter, lighter, lower-friction piston to withstand tougher driving conditions. The workday consumption of piston suppliers is the three major concerns of durability, friction, and quality.

In many respects, the development of gasoline engines has followed the path of diesel plans 15 years ago. To compensate for the 50% increase in peak cylinder pressure, some aluminum pistons have iron or steel inserts that support the top ring. The hottest gasoline engines require an enclosed channel that instantly sprays oil into the cooling chamber or under the piston, removing heat more efficiently than today’s methods. The sprayer will fire the oil into the small opening at the bottom. Pistons were provided to the gallery. However, at first glance pure technology is not easy to manufacture. Making the hollow channel means casting the piston as two parts, which are joined together by friction or laser welding.

Pistons account for at least 60% of engine friction, and improvements here directly affect fuel consumption. Screen-printed friction-reducing graphite-impregnated resin patches on skirts are now almost universal. Piston supplier Federal-Mul is experimenting. The oil ring has a tapered surface that reduces ring tension without increasing oil consumption. With less friction in the ring, a maximum of 0.15 horsepower can be unlocked per cylinder.

Automakers are also eager to accomplish new friction reductions between parts that rub against each other and rotate. Hard smooth diamond coating (DLC) holds promise for cylinder liners, piston rings, and list pins that require bearings between pins and connecting rods, but is expensive and hardly used in today’s cars.

“The manufacturers have negotiated the DLC very well, but whether the DLC will become a series production car is a question mark,” said Joachim Wagenblast, senior director of product development at German auto parts supplier Mare.


With increasingly sophisticated computer modeling and more accurate manufacturing methods, more complex shapes are also possible. In order to achieve a certain compression ratio, in addition to the required bowling, dome, and valve recesses, the asymmetric skirt has less thrust and higher rigidity areas to reduce friction and stress concentrations, on the sides of the piston. If the piston is turned over, the thickness of the tapered wall will hardly exceed 0.1 inches. The thinner the wall, the tighter the tolerances that have been measured in microns or thousands of millimeters need to be tightly controlled.

The thinner the wall, the better the need to understand the thermal expansion of the object. Thermal expansion can rise from below freezing point to hundreds of degrees in seconds. Metal in an engine does not expand uniformly when heated, so optimizing tolerances requires design experience and correct machining to create a slight eccentricity of the part.

After the introduction of this text, do you know more about pistons? We Landtop provides high-quality pistons, including Kubota V2403 engine and Kubota V2403 engine parts. Kubota V2403 engine is for sale now.


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